Oregon Pacific Railroad 1413
Last Update:  April 10, 2013
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Brian McCamish
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The first OPR photos of the No. 1413 are courtesy of Todd Havan of Western Rail right after the locomotive was painted in OPR colors in the Western Rail Shops.
Photos of the 1413 taken on 8/15/10 by the OPR's Kelly Anable at Usk, Washington.
Photos of 1413 as part of a BNSF train when delivered to Portland, Oregon on 8-20-10, photo take at Vancouver Terminal.
These photos were taken of the 1413 on 8-19-10 while in Pasco, Washington, enroute to the OPR.   The following morning the 1413 departed in a train headed from Pasco to Portland,
Photos courtesy of Richard Olson of Pasco, Washington.
Photos of 1413 at OPR's East Portland Junction and at the OPR shops in Milwaukie, Oregon on 8-27-10.   Other locomotive shown is OPR's 1202.
OPR 1413's lettering now applied.   The white front snow cover was removed along with the upper radiator covers.  Both will be discarded.   Standard overhead radiator covers will be
reinstalled and Brian Samuels is fabricating a new front intake grill that will be similar to the 1202.
"Eileen Williams Samuels"
On 9/14, the 1413 was rolled out of the shop in the middle of its modification process for a few photos.   Here the lettering is complete.  The front grill still needs to be completed,
painted and installed.
Newly designed and fabricated front grill of the 1413.  Modelled after the front grill of the 1202 and designed and fabricated by Brian Samuels.  The replaces the snow radiator intake
and top covers that were in use up in Canada, but are not needed here in Oregon.
The 1413 Arrives on the OPR - Modifications - Early Days
Original Debut of the No. 1413 on the OPR
GMD-1 Train Magazine Articles
Railfan &  Railroad Magazine, May 1984.  A detailed article discussing the GMD-1 and its operations in Canada
Trains Magazine, August 1999, an article
discussing the final days of the GMD-1 in Canada
Railfan &  Railroad Magazine, July 1999, a detailed article about final GMD-1 Canada operations, including details about
rebuilt and modified units
Operational Debut of the No. 1413 - National Train Day May, 2011
Below are selected photos of the 1413 taken during the National Train Day event at Union Station, Portland, Oregon, May, 2011.
For more photos, please visit our
National Train Day 2011 photo page.
General History of the General Motors Division, GMD-1
About the OPR 1413

The Oregon Pacific Railroad No. 1413 is an ex-Canadian National GMD-1, No. 1413 (formerly CN No. 1045).  

In August 2010, the OPR purchased the No. 1413.  The OPR let go of two locomotives as part of the purchase of this engine; EMD SW-8 No.
602 (former
OP&E 602) and OPR No.
803 (former T&NO No. 13). Both of these locomotives were shipped to Western Rail in Washington State as part of the deal.

The 1413 was originally built in 1959 as CN No. 1045, with A1A flexicoil trucks and a 1200 h.p. 12-567-C.  It was completely rebuilt around 1989 by the CN at
their Pointe St. Charles Shops in Montreal.   Among the many modifications and upgrades, the 1000 gallon fuel tank was exchanged for a 2000 gallon custom
unit,  BB flexicoil trucks that came off a retired GP9 replaced the A1A style trucks, and an EMD 12-645C / D15C diesel engine/generator combo replaced the
original 12-567 unit.   It was also converted to a newer EMD control stand with 26L air.   The 1413 was last overhauled in 2005.  GMD/CN builder number was  
1989.   Essentially rebuilt to EMD SW1500 specifications, the No. 1413 was detuned back to its original 1200 h.p. due to generator limitations.

Canadian National classifies its locomotives uniquely.  The 1413 was originally classed as a GR-12w.  G=General Motors, R=Road Switcher, 12=1200 h.p.,
w=order number.   It was then reclassified as a GR-412a in 1989.   G=General Motors, R=Road Switcher, 4=4 axle trucks, 12=1200 h.p., a=rebuilt batch

This is the 2nd Canadian GMD locomotive owned by the OPR. The
1202 was originally a GMD SW9, now built to SW1200Ru specs, previously serving with
the Canadian Pacific.  Both the 1202 and 1413 share the same unique headlight hood rarely seen in the U.S. and make for an interesting combination.

Several modifications were undertaken after the No. 1413 arrived on OPR property.   The large white snow cowling over the radiator grill were removed and
replaced with a conventional screen type grill, custom made by the OPR's Brian Samuels.   The front train line was re-routed so the air can be cut in from the
engineer's side (switcher style) and the snowplows were removed and replaced with straight steel pilots.   The ladder style steps were replaced with more
conventional stair steps, similar to the 1202, for conductor safety.  The step modification required extensive work and was completed by the OPR crew at the
shops.  This makes the 1413 a very unique locomotive and a one of a kind.

Other electrical modifications made include upgrading the old "Micor" radio and installing a Motorola Clean Cab version.   The 1413 is equipped with "smart
start" which will be upgraded for cellphone activation so the unit can be started by the crew while en route to their on-duty location.   It is also equipped to read
Fred Rear End Units.

The top of the hood, bell and exhaust stacks were also painted black.   OPR lettering was applied, including the addition of the OPR's motto, Oregon's
Progressive shortline Railroad.  The 1413 is the first locomotive to have this motto applied.   The 1413 was also officially named after and dedicated to owner
Richard Samuel's mother, Eileen Williams Samuels, who passed away in 2010.   This would be the 2nd locomotive dedicated to Mrs. Samuels.  The first being
OPR 1810 which was sold in 2007.

The last major modification prevented the 1413 from going into regular revenue service for almost 2 years, as other projects took precidence.  Because of a
rolling action discovered while testing on the East Portland Division, that occures on some sections of track, the OPR had to install custom made shocks and
brackets.   These shocks have dramaticly improved the 1413's ride and performance and as of July, 2012, it is now in regular revenue service on the East
Portland Division.

The 1413 is currently the primary switcher on the East Portland Division, with the OPR's No. 100 as the back up engine.

The following links are to mechanical drawings and photos of the 1413 series of  CN locomotives, courtesy of
Gord Hilderman of

CN mechanical drawing of the No. 1413 as originally configured when it was the No. 1045

CN mechanical drawing of the No. 1413, after the 1989 rebuild.

Historical photos of the 1413 courtesy of cnrphotos.com.

Taken at Chappell-Saskatoon, SK - 9/1989

Taken at Symington-Winnipeg, MB, 8/1995

Taken at Symington-Winnipeg, MB, 1/2009

Taken at Symington-Winnipeg, MB, 6/2009
No. 1413 was born a GMD-1 built by GMD (a Canadian division of EMD) in London, Ontario, Canada.   The GMD-1 was produced between August 1958 and
April 1960.   The No. 1413 was produced in early 1959.   Only 101 locomotives were produced of this type, all of which went to two Canadian Railroads.

Canadian National received 78 GMD-1s, which were originally equipped with A1A flexicoil trucks and numbered 1000-1077.  Canadian National also received
18 GMD-1s which were equipped with B-B trucks and fitted with steam generators for passenger service.  5 GMD-1s went to Northern Alberta Railways and
were fitted with A1A flexicoil trucks. (No. 300-305) These 5 units would ultimately become Canadian National locomotives when the CN purchased the NAR in

The U.S. Version of the GMD-1 was the RS1325.  Only 2 were produced for the Chicago and Illinois Midland railroad, numbered 30 and 31.  The RS1325
differed from the GMD-1 in that it made 1325 h.p., equipped with an EMD 12-567-D engine and riding on 2 axle flexicoil trucks.   They were ordered by the
C&IM railroad for use as passenger car switchers, but instead were mostly used in freight service.   Both units remained in active service with the I&M railroad
until at least 2009.  The No. 31 is currently disassembled at the TZPR shops in Peoria, IL.   The disposition of 30 is unknown to this writer.

No. 1413 was originally numbered CN No. 1045 and like all GMD-1s was originally equipped with an EMD 12-567-C prime mover, making 1200 h.p.   These
engines were considered "road switchers", being suitable for both switching and mainline road use.   However, the design of the GMD-1 had one primary
purpose in mind; a locomotive that could replace the steam engines used on the very light rail branch lines of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, Canada.

Between 1910 and 1930, Canadian railroads had built thousands of miles of branch lines to access the massive grain fields of the Canadian prairies.   By the
1950s, many of these branch lines were only intermittently used, making their upgrade uneconomical.  Weight restrictions on these branch lines began to be
implemented to 160,000 lbs on the drivers.   Rather than replace over 3000 miles of track, it was decided to design a locomotive that could operate on the
extremely light track while still pulling heavy loads of grain cars.   The solution was essentially a stretched EMD SW1200, accomodating A1A style trucks with a
idler axle.   By comparision an  SW1200 would have a driver weight of 222,000 lbs.  A GMD-1, with the A1A trucks, would have driver weight of approximately
159,000lbs on the heaviest version of the GMD-1.

While based on the SW1200, the GMD-1 is its own design and the first locomotive designed and built by the Canadian based GMD division of EMD.

18 GMD-1s were put into passenger service, utilizing the extra space in the short hood for steam generators and using conventional 4 wheel flexicoil trucks.  
Canadian National numbered these GMD-1s 1900-1917.

In 1977, the Canadian government enacted laws that allowed the railroads to start abandoning the prairie branch lines that were not economically feasible.  
This would mark the beginning of the end to the light rail Canadian prairie branch lines, although GMD-1s would continue to serve in that role for a number of
years later.   By 1983, over 1700 miles of weight restricted brand lines were still in service.  However, the need for the GMD-1s in their original role was
diminishing.   Because the locomotives served so well, CN began exploring options of rebuilding and reassigning the GMD-1s elsewhere.   

In 1983, some No. 1000 series GMD-1s were pulled off the branch lines and pressed into yard and transfer duties.   Starting in 1983, CN began an extensive
rebuild program for some units.   The rebuild included new control panels, conversion to BB trucks and new fuel tanks and possibly upgrade to 12-645 prime
movers.  When completed, they were designated GMD-1Us and renumbered.  Typically the 0 in the original number was replaced with a 1.  For example, 1051
was built in 1986 and renumbered 1151.   This rebuild program would go on through 1990 with the same type of renumbering system.  

In 1988, CN began a new rebuild program of 39 GMD-1s to be completely rebuilt and then reassigned.  The OPR's GMD-1 was one of these units and was
rebuilt in 1989 and renumbered 1413.   As part of the complete overhaul, new prime movers, EMD 12-645-Cs were installed as well as other significant
upgrades.   Rebuilt GMD-1s are designated GMD-1U since the rebuild makes then significantly different than original GMD-1 units.

Of the 39 rebuilt units, 24 rebuilt units recieved the B-B flexicoil trucks and were numbered in 1400-1423.  15 GMD-1Us retained the A1A trucks and were
converted to short hood forward operation and renumbered into the 1600 series.   These 15 units were put back into the service on the last 1000 miles of the
prairie branch lines.   By the late 1990s, most of those units were also converted to B-B style trucks.

The 24 rebuilt 1400 series units were placed into road/switcher service, but were shortly replaced by GP38s in that role.   Ultimately, they finished out their
days on the CN as yard switchers, where some still in CN service today.

By 1999, only one 55 mile stretch of prairie branch line in Saskatchewan required the lighter A1A axle equipped GMD-1, the Lewvan Subdivision.  By then
only 3 GMD-1s remained that were still light axle equipped, No. 1600, 1601 and 1602.  The last run of GMD-1s on this line was July 5, 1999.   Those three
units were ultimately rebuilt in 2000 to GMD-1U specs using parts from retired GMD-1Us, including fuel tanks and trucks and renumbered 1430-1432.

Several units that were not extensively rebuilt during the 1989-1990 rebuild program were retired, sold off or scrapped by the late 1990s.  

By the late 1990s and early 2000s a number of GMD-1s were sold into foreign service on railroads that needed the light footed power.  The Ferrocarriles
Consolidados de Cuba Railroad purchased at least 13 units, 1106, 1113, 1115, 1120, 1123, 1124, 1130, 1133, 1134, 1139, 1140, 1147, 1166 for use on it's
light weight rail in Cuba.  GMD-1 units that had been converted to BB trucks were reconverted back to A1A trucks before being shipped to Cuba.   Some
sources indicate that only 12 units remain in service in Cuba.   No. 1154, 1156, 1160,  1171, 1180, was sold to a railroad in west Africa.  No. 1904 was sold to

Several GMD-1s were donated to museums.  CN 1404 was donated to the Wainwright Railway Preservation Society as a stuff and mounted display at
Wainwright AB in 2004.   CN 1900 was donated to the Midwestern Rail Association in Winnipeg.  

From 1998 through at least 2000, CN began an extensive rebuild program for it's remaining units using parts from retired converted GMD-1Us. These
included current number 1430 through 1444.   Parts were mostly donated from units that were converted to BB trucks and rebuilt in the early to mid 1980s
and not the 1989-1900 rebuild program.

CN still retains as many as 27 GMD-1 units.   It was determined by CN that the GMD-1 engines were good switchers and the company decided to keep its
remaining units, with some of the units recently undergoing another rebuild.   It appears that CN uses the GMD-1 primarily as a yard switcher engine today, a
role that it was not originally designed for, but still serves very well, given it's switcher heritage.

This website gives a basic history of almost all GMD-1s built, ilsted by road number.
OPR 1413 Historical Photos
Both photos from slides now owned by the OPR.
Left photo:  Taken by D. Whitnall, June, 1989, Toronto, Onterio.   Right photo:  Unknown photographer, May, 1989, unknown location.
Recent Photos of the 1413 in the Summer 1212
Oregon Pacific Railroad No. 1413